The original one to provided the fresh new nutritional top-notch products, sex, amount and you may a variable denoting nutritional position (overweight/obesity=Bmi Z-rating ?+1)

The original one to provided the fresh new nutritional top-notch products, sex, amount and you may a variable denoting nutritional position (overweight/obesity=Bmi Z-rating ?+1)

All schools was basically classified of the Chilean Ministry out-of Knowledge on around three membership, specifically reduced-achieving colleges, mid-achieving colleges and you may higher-finding colleges, reliant this new overall performance of its youngsters throughout SIMCE testing ( thirty-two ) .

Anthropometric measurements and you may health position

Standardized procedures were used to measure students’ weight to the nearest 0·1 kg, using a Seca scale (SECA, Hamburg, Germany), and height to the nearest 0·1 cm, using a Holtain stadiometer. All instruments were verified before measuring each participant ( Reference Gibson 33 ) . BMI (kg/m 2 ) and height-for-age were evaluated, and Z-scores were obtained according to the references of the Centers for Disease Control, National Center for Health Statistics (USA) ( Reference Kuczmarski, Ogden and Guo 34 ) . Nutritional status was defined as follows: underweight, BMI Z-score <?1; normal weight, BMI Z-score from ?1 to +1; overweight, BMI Z-score from +1 to +<2; and obesity, BMI Z-score ?+2.

Socio-economic status

Socio-financial updates (SES) was counted playing with a measure considering Graffar’s changed means and therefore was latinomeetup online adapted to help you Chilean metropolitan and you may rural populations ( Source Alvarez, Muzzo and you will Ivaple to the five socio-financial communities: 1=higher (0·step 3 %); 2=mid–high (14·eight %); 3=center (38·3 %); 4=mid–reasonable (45·6 %); and you can 5=lower (step 1·step one %). Although not, within research we merged these types of four classes into the three: higher (1+2), middle (3) and you can reduced (4+5) SES.

Mathematical data

Statistical analysis included performing ? 2 tests to compare categorical variables, and ANOVA and Bonferroni tests for comparison of continuous variables. After performing bivariate analyses with each potential confounding variable, including sex, grade, nutritional status, SES and school’s performance, we used logistic regression to assess the relationship between the nutritional quality of snacks at school (exposure) and individual academic performance in Mathematics and Language (outcome). In each case, the probability of passing the test was estimated using three models. In the second model, SES was added. Finally, a fully adjusted model contained all mentioned covariates with the addition of a variable denoting the school’s academic performance. Because the variable school’s performance was partly derived from the outcome variables, this adjustment may cause underestimation of the association, so we included models with and without adjustment for school’s performance. A P value of <0·05 denoted statistical significance. Data were processed using the statistical software package Stata SE for Windows version 12·0.


The decide to try was created right up off thirteen·step 1 ( sd dos·3) year-old men (52 %) and you can female (48 %) kids from reduced (44·step 3 %), center (39·six %) and highest (step one6·1 %) SES. It attended fifth (51·9 %) and you may 9th (48·1 %) grade in public (34·8 %), partly paid (57·8 %) and personal universities (7·4 %) in the Santiago Urban Area. In terms of health status, 45 % off participants was indeed heavy or obese. Nearly half of the students (forty-eight %) attended high-finding universities, while 31 % and 23 % attended middle- and you may lower-finding schools, correspondingly.

Regarding the try, 56 % off people advertised consumption of things at the treat time that were chock-full of fat, sugar, salt and effort. Thirty-six percent were considered having bad-to-reasonable snack, whereas simply 8 % was indeed thought to eat suit facts when you look at the snack date from the college. Desk 1 gets the detailed analytics of your test. Mediocre viewpoints out-of score in Code and you will Math was indeed notably ong those with down nutritional quality of items at school (P=0·01). Brand new share off youngsters consuming below average meals at school is actually significantly higher among 9th graders (59 %; P=0·040), children probably lowest-gaining universities (61 %; P=0·036), and additionally certainly one of skinny and you may normal-pounds people (69 % and you may 62 %, respectively; P=0·006).

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